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distance
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Distance
6 October 2004, by D. P.
Interval to cover in order to go from one place to another, distance has a meaning of separation, its covering requires effort, expense of energy. The mathematical definition of distance is restrictive: a measure of gap between objects is a distance if it is symmetrical, if it is not negative, if it is null only when two objects merge, and if it verifies triangular inequality. A space endowed with distance in the mathematical meaning is a metric space. Observed or cognitive geographical (...)

Gradient
6 October 2004, by D. P.
Is called gradient the variation of intensity of a phenomenon per unit of distance between a place and a given centre (or axis). It is the case for example with density gradients which develop around a city centre, gradients of population, facilities, shops, services, gradients of land prices, etc. gradients of population which appear on either side of some traffic ways or else starting from a coast, etc. Geographical gradients are the expression of the fact that places belong to fields of (...)