In contemporary sciences, attention paid to complexity comes from the lacks of the classical analytical approach in explaining reality. Complexity postulates that it is impossible to describe, without reductionism, some phenomena that cannot be broken down and that the Whole cannot be reduced to elementary units.
The notion of complexity is used at two different levels: complexity in constitution of things: from the cell to the organism, and complexity in interpretation which refers to (...)
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Complexity
6 October 2004, by B. E. 
Random
6 October 2004, by D. P.In statistics, a distribution is random or stochastic or realised by chance, when its composing elements may occur at any moment in time or may appear in any location with some probability. A random distribution may however follow a characteristic process that gives it a particular form (e.g. Poisson distribution, normal distribution, law of GaltonGibrat). Tables of random numbers are used in order to generate such distributions, which serve as references for comparison with observed (...)

Determinism
6 October 2004, by F.D.D.In geographical literature, the notion of determinism is used in a rather particular way, which generates such ambiguities that the problems they raise should be mentioned in the first place.
The term "determinism " is indeed often used in order to designate what may be called a "mechanist determinism by natural factors". In its extreme form, such approach would consist in interpreting all aspects of geographical space in function of natural features of this space, or, as is often said, in (...)